Advanced Blood Lipid Support

Triglycer-whats? So, What Are Triglycerides? Where Do They Come From?

In medicine, hypertriglyceridemia denotes high (hyper-) blood levels (-emia) of triglycerides. As a part of lipid management, it has become a major medical problem. This website is intended to allow you to become an informed patient who can manage your own care, ask the right questions, insist on adequate management and information, and seek an optimal outcome for yourself. Perhaps it will even help the health professionals who are giving care to better understand and, hopefully, incorporate into their practice the nutritional approach to high blood triglycerides.

When it comes to health care, you need to stay alert, ask questions, and ultimately rely on yourself for important health care decisions. By applying these guidelines, you will be able to take control of your health care, just as we all should do.

The purpose of this website is to present, to all who want the knowledge, a natural, safe and dependable method through which individuals can lower their elevated blood triglyceride levels. If you put your mind to it you can achieve astonishing results. By having the whole page printed, you can read it in a nice easy chair, away from that glaring monitor.

Elevated blood triglycerides, or hypertriglyceridemia is a common lipid disorder in North America. Although 25 percent of the population of Western nations have elevated serum triglycerides levels, there is still lots of confusion about what triglycerides are and how they relate to cardiovascular disease, especially atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, heart attack and stroke.

In short, triglycerides are a fatty substance (lipid) present in the bloodstream and get their name from their chemical structure. Desirable fasting blood triglyceride levels should be 50 - 150 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 0.6 - 1.7 millimoles per liter (mmol/L) of blood.

    The average triglyceride level in the United States is 134 mg/dL, or 1.5 mmol/L and is considerably higher than triglyceride levels below 100 mg/dL, or 1.1 mmol/L commonly observed in countries where heart disease rates are low.

Although medical establishments consider blood triglyceride levels of 10 - 150 mg/dL, or 0.1 - 1.7 mmol/L "normal," according to many experts, serum triglyceride levels of 70 - 100 mg/dL, or 0.8 - 1.1 mmol/L are optimal to our health.

Elevations of the blood triglyceride level (particularly in association with elevated LDL-"bad" cholesterol, and/or decreased HDL-"good" cholesterol) have been correlated with the development of atherosclerosis.

"Research shows that levels above 100 mg/dl significantly increase your risk for heart attack," says Bruce Holub, PhD, nutrition researcher at the University of Guelph in Ontario, Canada.

For each mmol/L increase in triglycerides - which translates into 88.5 mg/dL - the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) increases by:

  • 37 percent in women and
  • 14 percent in men.

All else being equal, a man with a triglyceride level of 300 mg/dL would have a risk of cardiovascular events roughly 28 percent higher than that of an otherwise comparable man who has a level of 100 mg/dL (A meta-analysis by John Hokanson and Melissa Austin, 1996).

Therefore, for every percentage your triglyceride level drops, so can your chance of heart disease or stroke.

Triglycerides: A Fancy Name for Fat

The term triglycerides is simply a fancy name for fat, or what scientists call lipids. Unfortunately, due to unhealthy eating habits, to many people, the word "lipid" is synonymous with problems, such as fatty foods, high cholesterol levels, high triglycerides levels, animal fat (butter, lard/pork, beef), saturated fat (present in butter, cheese, meat, meat products - sausages, hamburgers, full-fat milk and yogurt (but also in vegetable sources such as coconut and palm oil), partially hydrogenated fat (the "partially hydrogenated vegetable oil" found in chips and cookies), obesity (excess body fat/adipose tissue), heart disease and stroke, etc.

Actually, these examples are more a consequence of unhealthy eating habits, or what one might call dietary lipid abuse, rather than implying that lipids are inherently damaging or dangerous.

On the contrary, lipids, such as triglycerides, are crucial to cell function (such as cellular membrane function) and played key roles in the survival of our ancestors through times when food was scarce.

Approximately 50 percent of the fat from a meal is burned for energy and the remainder is sent to adipose tissue (body fat), where it is stored until it's needed as energy fuel when a person is fasting. A lean adult has 15 kg of triglycerides which represents approximately enough energy to survive for 3 months (one pound of human body fat contains 3,500 calories).

More than 90 percent of the fat in the food we eat and in the fat folds on our bodies is made up of triglycerides. The fat tissues in which triglycerides are stored serve as fluid cushions around organs, such as the kidneys and the abdomen, and provide thermal insulation.

In foods, fats provide flavor and palatability.

The other two main classes of fats - less than 10 percent of the fat - are phospholipids, such as lecithin, and sterols, such as cholesterol.

Although related, triglycerides and cholesterol are different types of fats. They are natural substances always found together in the bloodstream (triglycerides are used as fuel by the liver to make cholesterol). Chances are if you have high triglycerides, you probably have high cholesterol, although there are exceptions.

They also coexist in animal fat. So when we eat meat, dairy, eggs and other animal products we consume both cholesterol and triglycerides together. Cholesterol doesn't exist in plants and so it's not present in fats and oils derived from plants.

Like cholesterol, triglycerides are necessary for life itself; they are chains of high-energy fatty acids providing much of the fuel needed for body cells to function. As a matter if fact, they liberate the largest amount of energy per unit mass of any of the fuel sources.

Triglycerides circulate constantly in all the subtypes of lipoprotein carrier in the blood, also ferrying fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K to locations where they're needed, aiding in the synthesis of certain hormones and protecting cell membranes.

Triglycerides: Chemical Definition

Triglyceride gets its name from its chemical structure: a molecule of triglyceride is composed of a backbone of the alcohol glycerol to which three fatty acids ("tri") are bound, hence its name: "tri-glyceride." Any combination of saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fatty acids can be in a triglyceride molecule.

    A good way to envision a triglyceride molecule is to look at your hand. Hold out the three center fingers and fold back the thumb and little finger. The three fingers are the three fatty acids and your hand is the glycerol. As the three fingers are different, so the three fatty acids in a triglyceride can be different. The fatty acids can be long or short, saturated (stiff) or unsaturated (bendable).

Being of plant (vegetable) or animal origin, triglycerides are found in

  • body fat (as solids in peripheral adipocytes)
  • Sources of triglycerides (fat): 1. food - butter, margarine, salad dressing, oil, nuts, meat, poultry, fish, and some dairy products; 2. body fat - providing the body with a reserve supply of energy and other functions.
  • cooking oil (corn, soybean, peanut, olive oil)
  • shortenings, mainly canola-based (used for baking cookies, breads, pie crust etc., and for frying, especially in volume cooking in schools, hospitals, cafeterias, restaurants etc.)
  • lard (pork fat)
  • beef fat
  • milk
  • butter, and
  • cheese.

Grab a hold of your love handles, and you've got a handful of triglycerides. Eat a steak, and you've got a mouthful of them...

When we eat fatty products, the triglycerides end up in our blood. Even when we don't eat them, triglycerides are present in our blood. Our bodies make them from excess carbohydrate in our diet.

Intestinal Triglycerides: Chylomicrons

As found in the bloodstream, triglycerides are fats being transported from intestines to body cells. They may originate from two sources:

  • the food you eat, mainly sugar, animal products and saturated fat (sweets, red meat, dairy) processed in the intestines, and/or
  • being manufactured within the body by the liver itself -- especially during times, when dietary fats are not available.

Dietary fats (from food) are absorbed through the gut – the intestines where they are assembled (synthesized) into special “lipid packets” called chylomicrons, a microscopic, minute fat particles formed during fat digestion and assimilation that directly enter the lymphatic system.

Intestinal triglycerides, or chylomicrons, containing approximately 85 percent triglycerides, are then delivered through the bloodstream to the liver, where they are processed (the normal half-life of chylomicrons is about 10 minutes).

(The half-life of a substance refers to the time required to eliminate or metabolize half of the total quantity of the substance from the body following its digestion.)

Hepatic Triglycerides: Very Low Density Lipoproteins

Any disturbance in lipid synthesis causing an excess of intestinal chylomicrons and/or and excess of triglyceride-rich VLDLs produced in the liver, or any disturbance in their breakdown will cause elevations in blood triglyceride levels.
One of the main jobs of the liver is to make sure that all the tissues of the body receive the triglycerides they need to function at optimal levels.

Whenever possible (i.e., for about 8 hours after a meal), the liver takes up dietary triglycerides from the chylomicrons produced in the intestines or - especially when dietary fats are not available - synthesizes them.

However, fats are not soluble in water. Because the liquid part of blood is made up with water, the liver packages triglycerides, along with special proteins, into tiny water-soluble packages-spheres, or carrier molecules, called very low density lipoproteins, or VLDL. In this form, they are released into the circulation and delivered to the cells of the body.

In fact, VLDL is one of three hepatic - synthesized by the liver - major "lipid packets,” which include:

  • high density lipoprotein (HDL-"good" cholesterol) and
  • low density lipoprotein (LDL-"bad" cholesterol).

Each one of these "packets" contains then triglyceride and cholesterol, but in varying amounts unique to each packet.

As their name suggests, very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs) are much lighter than low density lipoproteins (LDL), containing mainly cholesterol, and high density lipoproteins (HDL), containing mostly the excess cholesterol removed from tissues and carried back to the liver.

This is because of their makeup - VLDL particles contain less protein and more fat (mainly triglycerides) than both LDL and HDL cholesterol. In fact, fatty triglycerides account for approximately 50 percent of the dry weight of a VLDL molecule, compared to only 5 to 10 percent for LDL and HDL.

It contains so much triglyceride, in fact, that you can get an idea of what the VLDL concentration is by dividing the triglyceride value by 5.

At present, there is no direct way of measuring VLDL, so the direct measurement of triglyceride is considered the next best thing, and the calculation is done if needed.

However, the more VLDL is produced by the liver, the higher triglycerides, and the more fat in the bloodstream.

A high level of triglyceride-rich VLDL ("normal" is 1-30, optimal is below 20) also goes hand in hand with a low level of protective HDL-"good" cholesterol.

Furthermore, as VLDL travels through the bloodstream – its normal half-life is about 9 hours - cells remove its triglycerides, which are replaced with cholesterol.

This is bad news. According to many medical experts, triglycerides themselves can be harmful to the cardiovascular system leading to a heart attack or stroke. Also, excess fat makes the blood more sluggish and reduces its ability to carry oxygen to cells.

High Triglycerides: Multiple Causes and Related Conditions

The most common cause of an elevated triglyceride level is a non-fasting specimen.

There are many, common and uncommon causes of high blood triglycerides, including dietary indiscretion, metabolic disease, drugs, or rare genetic mutation of an enzyme in the lipid metabolism pathway (type I hyperlipoproteinemia).

It is a well-known fact, that in many cases unfavourably elevated blood triglyceride levels are caused by:

  • too acid pH of glycerol (due to diet and lack of potassium via phosphorylation in the stomach) and
  • improperly oxidized (metabolized) fatty acids in the gut by pancreatic enzymes.

If this is the case, only a multi-based, specialty nutritional supplement can help solve the problem for most people.

However, the commonest cause of an elevated triglyceride level is -- inadequate patient fasting, since a recent meal will cause fat in the form of triglycerides to be transported from the gut to the rest of the body.

Once a non-fasting specimen has been eliminated as a possible cause of increased triglycerides, the other causes should be considered, such as:

  • Next link will open in a new window: High triglycerides metabolic syndrome connection metabolic syndrome X, also called the insulin resistance syndrome or pre-diabetic syndrome; although not a cause of high triglycerides, metabolic syndrome is closely associated with this condition, along with low HDL-"good" cholesterol
  • obesity or overweight; generally when people lose weight, both triglycerides and HDL-"good" cholesterol improve
  • Next link will open in a new window: High triglycerides diabetes connection type 2 diabetes and/or when the body cannot handle blood sugar (glucose); poorly controlled diabetes can increase triglycerides significantly, especially when blood glucose is out of control
  • prolonged Next link will open in a new window: High triglycerides stress connection stress - during stress, fat is not being metabolized as rapidly and efficiently; a new study has found the evidence that psychological stress causes triglycerides to stay in the bloodstream longer contributing to heart disease (Psychophysiology, 2002: 39; 80-85)
  • prolonged Next link will open in a new window: High triglycerides depression connection depression - depression works on your body in different ways than stress, but the results are the same; in a 1994 study, Dr. Glueck and colleagues demonstrated that high blood triglycerides, together with high total cholesterol and low HDL-"good" cholesterol, were the sole causative factors in mild to serious depression he detected in patients referred for treatment of severe familial hypertriglyceridemia
  • too long fasting (way over 14 hours); it causes major changes in energy metabolism, especially with implications for blood triglycerides
  • regular ingestion of refined carbohydrates such as starches, grains, sweets, and other sugar-containing foods; generally, a diet in which more than 60% of the energy intake is from carbohydrates
  • heavy caffeine use, on average 560 mg of caffeine per day; however, the amount of caffeine in coffee or tea is variable: one 5 oz. cup of coffee contains approximately 40-170 mg caffeine (average 80 mg), one 12. oz. can of Cola contains 30-60 mg caffeine (average: 45 mg), one 8 oz. cup of black tea (one tea bag) contains 25-110 mg caffeine (average: 40 mg)
  • smoking cigarettes (overall, as smoking is one of the biggest contributors to excessive blood fats, smokers have significantly higher serum concentrations of triglycerides compared with nonsmokers; smoking does damage indirectly by reducing HDL-"good" cholesterol, which helps take triglycerides from the blood back into the liver for excretion.)
  • Next link will open in a new window: High triglycerides alcohol (wine, beer) connection alcohol (alcohol abuse - heavy drinking or alcoholism)
  • lack of Next link will open in a new window: High triglycerides exercise connection exercise (sedentary lifestyle, lack of physical activity)
  • chronic liver disease, such as cirrhosis, most often associated with alcohol abuse
  • nephrotic syndrome, a condition indicating kidney damage, characterized by high levels of protein in the urine, lack of protein in the blood that lead to hyperlipidemia with elevated cholesterols, triglycerides and other lipids, and edema
  • Next link will open in a new window: High triglycerides pancreatitis fatty liver connection pancreatitis - inflammation or infection of the pancreas, which in turn may be caused by high levels of triglycerides
  • cyclosporine (Neoral) - a potent immunosuppressant, prescription medication used to prevent rejection problems in kidney, liver, heart and bone marrow transplants (currently, a bone marrow transplant is the only cure for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML); however, the procedure is successful less than 2/3 of the time). Following bone marrow transplants, cyclosporine increases both triglyceride and LDL-"bad" cholesterol levels in blood
  • dialysis or kidney transplantation; 50 to 80 percent of kidney transplant patients have some degree of high cholesterol and/or triglycerides which may persist for years after transplant
  • interferon (IFN) therapy - there are several reports that interferon can cause alterations in lipid metabolism in about 10 to 15 percent of patients resulting in mild elevations in triglycerides and increases in cholesterol; usually, the changes return to normal when treatment is stopped
  • atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of heart disease
  • hyperlipoproteinemia (hyperlipidemia), characterized by abnormally high levels of lipids (cholesterol, triglycerides, or both) carried by lipoproteins in the blood
  • vertigo which may be a symptom of numerous problems with metabolism, including high blood triglycerides (Lehrer JF, Poole DC, Seaman M, et al. Identification and treatment of metabolic abnormalities in patients with vertigo. Arch. Intern. Med. 1986;146:1497–500)
  • underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism) - a condition caused by the effects of too little thyroid hormone in tissues of the body
  • cystic fibrosis, a fatal inherited disorder affecting mainly the lungs and the digestive system (high blood triglyceride levels in people with cystic fibrosis may be related to a chronic low-grade inflammation or to a dietary macronutrient imbalance with an excess absorption of simple carbohydrate compared to fat)
  • Kawasaki Disease (KD) - a febrile systemic vasculitis in children; an inflammation of the blood vessels accompanied by high fever of unclear cause and overrepresented in Asian populations, especially Japanese, and among Americans of Japanese descent; in the early phase of KD, lipid profile alterations include increased levels of triglycerides and decreased levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and cholesterol; if untreated, KD can be complicated by coronary and peripheral arterial aneurysms (CAA)
  • lupus, an autoimmune disorder, chronic inflammatory disease affecting especially the skin, joints, blood, and kidneys
  • gout, one of the most common forms of arthritis (joint inflammation), usually affecting the feet and ankles, especially the ball of the big toe
  • Cushing's syndrome, sometimes called "hypercortisolism" - a relatively rare hormonal disorder caused by prolonged exposure of the body's tissues to high levels of the hormone cortisol, commonly characterized by upper body obesity
  • polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) - an endocrine (hormonal) disorder; although high triglycerides are very often associated with PCOS, they are not seen in every woman (no two women experiencing PCOS have exactly the same symptoms)
  • estrogens, for example as "the pill" or as hormone replacement therapy (HRT), such as Premarin (for menopause or hysterectomy); progesterone, however, also tends to increase blood triglycerides and decrease HDL-"good" cholesterol
  • corticosteroids (kor-ti-koe-STER-oyds) - strong cortisone-like, antyinflammatory drugs, such as Hydrocortisone, Prednisolone, and Prednisone; abnormal deposits of fat on bones and in the bone marrow reduce the blood circulation leading to osteonecrosis, also called avascular necrosis, typical in AIDS patients
  • cholestyramins (koe-less-TEAR-a-meens) - drugs for lowering cholesterol, such as Questran or Prevalite
  • beta-blockers - a short name for beta-adrenergic blocking agents or beta-blocking agents (most of the generic names for beta blockers end with "olol"); used in the treatment of high blood pressure (hypertension), cardiac arrhytmias, angina (chest pain) and in patients with coronary artery disease to help prevent additional heart attacks. Some beta-blockers, without intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA), tend to raise serum triglycerides and to decrease HDL-"good" cholesterol. The common adverse effects of beta-blocker are cold hands, fatigue; the less common, but serious adverse effects include the provocation of asthma, heart failure or conduction block. Beta-blockers are effective in only about 20 percent of patients over 60 years old in whom the thiazides (diuretics) are the drugs of choice
  • diuretics - such as thiazides (bendrofluazide), medicines usually given for high blood pressure or heart failure, often in combination with other antihypertensive agents, including beta-blockers; also known as water pills, diuretics increase blood triglycerides
  • Tamoxifen (Nolvadex), the number one recommended drug treatment for women recovering from breast cancer; however, with potential lethal side-effects; besides elevated blood triglycerides, tamoxifen has been associated with induced menopausal symtpoms, eye damage, blood clots, asthma, liver, uterine (endometrial), and gastrointestinal cancers
  • miconazole (intravenous) - an antifungal agent administered by intravenous infusion in the treatment of severe systemic fungal infections such as candidiasis
  • spironolactone - a drug for cirrhotic ascites (hepatic cirrhosis with ascites)
  • Accutane (a trade name of Isotretinoin) - a powerful drug used in the treatment of acne with several significant side effects, including increased blood fats - sometimes to risky levels; for this reason, all people need to have their blood checked for triglyceride levels before starting this medication and every 4 to 6 weeks while taking it
  • Quinapril (Accupril), an antihypertensive (blood pressure lowering agent) known as an ACE inhibitor with numerous side effects, including high triglyceride levels
  • Mirtazapine (Remeron), a newer antidepressant (it can cause increased blood levels of triglycerides to 500 mg/dL, or 5.6 mmol/L)
  • cancer – "The lipid profile in cancer patients is characterized by low low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and relatively high serum triglycerides." (Journal of Clinical Laboratory Research 2000; 30(3): 141-145)
  • early-onset of schizophrenia - dyslipidemia may be related to the more severe forms of schizophrenia or to a more prolonged exposure to antipsychotics; also a poor diet due to cognitive disorders may play a role, increasing the risk for the cardiovascular complications of higher serum triglyceride levels (Am J Psychiatry 161:176, January 2004)
  • HIV+, especially Next link will open in a new window: High triglycerides HIV+ connection protease inhibitors (PIs), such as Ritonavir, associated with fat redistribution, increased risk for atherosclerosis, diabetes and bone damage (osteonecrosis) due to lipid abnormalities (hypertriglyceridemia or hypercholesterolemia)
  • periodontal disease - a Japanese study indicates a relationship between elevated serum triglyceride level (> 149 mg/dl, or 1.7 mmol/L) and periodontal status (Community Dent Health 2004 Mar;21(1):32-6).

Familial Hypertriglyceridemia

Familial hypertriglyceridemia is an inherited disorder that causes high triglycerides in the blood, namely, elevated concentration of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). This leads to increased risk of:

  • heart disease
  • obesity, and
  • pancreatitis.

Familial hypertriglyceridemia is caused by a gene mutation which is passed on in an autosomal dominant fashion. This means that if you get the gene from just one of your parents -- you will have the condition.

How exactly the gene mutation causes an elevatation of triglycerides in the blood is unknown though.

Familial hypertriglyceridemia is not contagious. However, children and other family members of the affected person should get regular lipid screenings as this condition does not usually manifest itself until puberty or early adulthood.

It is frequently associated with obesity, or being overveight, hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels), and high levels of insulin.

The main long-term concern is pancreatitis (the inflammation of pancreas). The pancreas is important because it makes insulin and substances to help digest food. If the pancreas stops working properly, as in pancreatitis, these functions may stop working.

In the United States, familial hypertriglyceridemia occurs in about 1 in 300 individuals.

This condition, however, can be successfully managed by

  • lifestyle changes, especially through aerobic exercise
  • food changes, especially through low-grain, no-sugar diet and
  • specialty nutritional supplementation supporting lipid (fat) and carbohydrate (sugar/starches) metabolism.

High Triglycerides: What Are the Symptoms?

Most people with borderline-high (150 - 199 mg/dL, or 1.7–2.3 mmol/L) or high triglycerides (200 - 499 mg/dL, or 2.3–5.6 mmol/L) will not have any symptoms. That's what makes it so scary. Because no one feels badly with high triglycerides, a lot of people simply have no clue!

Even in people with severe blood triglycerides - 1000 mg/dL, or 11.3 mmol/L, or acutely and massively elevated triglycerides - results from the physical examination are variable, ranging from normal examination results to one or more of the following findings:

  • When sustained elevated triglycerides are well above 1000 mg/dL sometimes eruptive xanthomas are found. These are 1- to 3-mm pin-head yellow papules, or bumps on an erythematous base occurring mostly on the back, buttocks, chest, bony elbows, knees and heels.

Xanthomas are lesions on the skin containing cholesterol and fats. They are often associated with inherited disorders of lipid metabolism (inherited problems with the way that fats are broken down and used).

A close-up of an eruptive xanthoma on the back of a man with a triglyceride level of 4600 mg/dL, or 51.9 mmol/L and acute pancreatitis. In all people, eruptive xanthomas are a sign of severe blood triglyceride levels.

  • The lesions are caused by accumulations of chylomicrons and will disappear gradually when triglycerides are kept below 1000 mg/dL. If the diagnosis of eruptive xanthomas, a benign condition, is in doubt, obtaining a biopsy of the suspicious lesions will reveal accumulations of fat (not cholesterol).

  • Adults with dysbetalipoproteinemia (type III) - a rare lipid disorder with high levels of blood triglycerides (greater than 400 mg/dL or even 1000 mg/dL) and cholesterol - may have palmar xanthomas (yellowish creases of the palms). This type of xanthoma is considered characteristic of this disorder. Tuberous or tuberoeruptive xanthomas, which also may occur in other hyperlipidemias, may arise on the elbows, knees, or buttocks.

  • The mid epigastric area or upper right or left quadrants will be tender to palpation, if pancreatitis or the chylomicronemia syndrome is present. Also in people with the chylomicronemia syndrome, memory loss, dementia, and depression have been reported.

  • Triglyceride levels of 4000 mg/dL or higher, or >45.2 mmol/L may cause a condition known as lipemia retinalis, in which eye examination reveals retinal blood vessels (and occasionally the retina) that have a pale pink, milky appearance.

It should be noted that fairly common on the eyelids, xanthomas - yellow, soft and slightly raised non-contagious bumps made of cholesterol deposits - are also a sign of elevated cholesterol levels.

High Triglycerides: The Critical Role of Blood Sugar

The most common reason for having high blood triglycerides (over 199 mg/dL, or 2.3 mmol/L) is blood sugar - its availability and handling.
One reason for body cells to fail to take up glucose (blood sugar) properly is
  • lack of insulin, common in type 1 diabetes, also called insulin-dependent or juvenile diabetes) or
  • insulin resistance, in which the body can’t use insulin efficiently, common in type 2 diabetes, sometimes referred to as maturity-onset diabetes or noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), or
  • insulin resistance syndrome, also called metabolic syndrome X or pre-diabetes syndrome, or
  • all the above.

There are now over 21 million type 2 diabetics in the U.S. alone; that is about 10 million American diabetic men and 10 million American diabetic women, and over a third don't even know it which is unfortunate since screenings are easy to perform.

Since 1958, in the United States the incidence of adult-onset diabetes has increased 600 percent. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has termed the change an epidemic.

And there is no end in sight to this rapid and uncontrollable outbreak of disease. With 800,000 new cases each year it is not surprising that diabetes ranks high among the list of conditions expected to accelerate. While not simply as a result of diabetes, 31 percent of all U.S. households are watching their sugar intake (Natural Marketing Institute, 2001).

In short, for the type 2 diabetes, the pathophysiology is based on producing much more insulin than normal - but not enough to keep the blood sugar under control. The result is: high blood sugars. And this high sugar is able to scar and destroy the blood vessels and the organs throughout the body.

Often described as the silent killer, diabetes can - if left untreated - lead to many serious health problems. Therefore, the sooner the disease is screened for and diagnosed, the more damage can be prevented.

On the other hand, the percentage of Americans with insulin resistance sundrome, or pre-diabetes syndrome is closer to 3 per cent of U.S. population. However, a new report from the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) multiplies the number of people in the U.S. who are pre-diabetic. The 2004 HHS report puts the new figure at 41 million (that's about the population of California and New Jersey combined!).

Insulin is the hormone produced by the pancreas, which helps cells take up glucose from the blood to use as fuel (energy).

If you lack insulin, or if your cells are resistant to insulin, they cannot take up glucose, and so they turn to fatty acids (fats/lipids) for fuel.
They get these fatty acids from... triglycerides put by the liver into circulation.

In pre-diabetes syndrome, or insulin resistance syndrome, a person loses his ability to manage insulin effectively. If not controlled properly, the syndrome can lead to:
  • coronary heart disease (CHD)
  • non-alcoholic fatty liver
  • cancer (colon or ovarian).

You might have pre-diabetes syndrome if you experience such symptoms as:

  • increased weight (20 percent over ideal body weight)
  • high blood pressure (140/90 mmHg or more)
  • high blood cholesterol (240 mg/dL and above).

High blood triglycerides levels - over 199 mg/dL, or 2.3 mmol/L - are a common symptom of pre-diabetes. Furthermore, you will be considered pre-diabetic if your fasting blood sugar level is between 110 mg/dL and 125 mg/dL (diabetes is formally diagnosed at 126 mg/dL). Some clinics use a fasting blood sugar of 90 mg/dL or higher as a biomarker of coronary heart disease risk. (A fasting blood sugar level test is the simplest and least expensive).

The Risky Apple Figure

For men with the apple figure - and excess weight in the middle - the risk for heart disease goes up two and a half times, for women - the risk rises eightfold.

For men with diabetes and the apple figure (with excess weight in the middle) the risk for heart disease goes up two and a half times, for women with diabetes and this shape it rises eightfold.

Why is the apple figure risky?

Fat cells located in the abdomen release fat into the blood more easily than fat cells found elsewhere. Release of fat begins 3 to 4 hours after the last meal compared to many more hours for other fat cells.

This easy release shows up as higher triglyceride and free fatty acid levels. Free fatty acids themselves cause insulin resistance.

It is estimated that one out of every four people in the U.S., or 80 million Americans, have insulin resistance and they are more prone to heart disease, even though they may never actually develop diabetes.

Excess cardiac risks found with an apple figure include:

  • higher blood triglycerides levels
  • lower HDL-"good" (protective) cholesterol
  • higher blood pressure
  • type 2 diabetes, and
  • kidney disease.

Do You Have an Apple Figure?

To find out whether you have an apple figure, determine your waist-to-hip ratio:

  • Take your waist measurement with a tape measure around your waist an inch above the navel.
  • Then take your hip measurement by measuring your hips at their widest point.
  • Determine your waist-to-hip ratio by dividing your waist measurement by your hip measurement.

An unhealthy accumulation of fat in the middle, or an apple figure, suggests:

  • for women, ratio over 0.8
  • for men, ratio over 1.0.

Standard Blood Lipid Profile/Panel

A group of tests, called a blood lipid profile, or 12-hour fasting lipids panel, is often recommended as a medical routine screening to evaluate risk of heart disease in healthy adults.

The standard ("complete") fasting blood lipid profile includes:

  • total cholesterol
  • HDL-cholesterol (often called good cholesterol)
  • LDL-cholesterol (often called bad cholesterol)
  • triglycerides, and, sometimes
  • calculated HDL/Cholesterol ratio, and/or
  • a risk score based on lipid profile results, age, sex, and other risk factors.

Standard Fasting Blood Lipid Profile Continue reading this article...

The Test for Triglycerides

Like cholesterol, increases in triglyceride levels can be detected by plasma (blood) measurements. In most cases, triglycerides are measured because they are used to calculate the serum (blood) LDL-"bad" cholesterol levels - which determines the need to treat people who have high total cholesterol.

According to the Friedewald equation, LDL cholesterol equals total cholesterol minus HDL-"good" cholesterol minus one-fifth of triglyceride level - where all concentrations are given in mg/dL.

This equation, however, is generally unreliable and should not be used when blood triglycerides are elevated (over 400 mg/dL, or 4.5 mmol/L).

Since risk of heart disease is commonly based on cholesterol levels - not triglycerides! - usually, you get tested for triglycerides only:

  • during a regular routine medical exam (typically, every five years) or
  • if you are being treated for high triglycerides (to see if treatment is working).

However, it is very important to have your triglycerides measured, if you are diabetic. Diabetes can increase triglycerides significantly, especially when your blood sugar is out of control.

Most healthy people over 40 should get their triglycerides tested at least once a year. But, if your triglycerides are elevated, recheck them every three (3) months until they reach the desirable level.

True Baseline Triglyceride Measurement

The test for triglycerides - using a blood sample drawn from a vein or a fingertip - should be done after an overnight fasting when no extra triglycerides from a recent meal are present (when triglycerides are being sent from the gut to body's fat tissue for storage).

In practice, however, that way of obtaining a true baseline triglyceride measurement is often given no more than lip service.

As opposed to circulating HDL and LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride blood concentrations change significantly with food intake.

Whenever you eat a meal that contains fat, your triglyceride levels rise. The degree of the increase depends on the baseline level.

For example, if your triglyceride level is about 50 mg/dL, after eating a classic fast-food "meal" of a hamburger, French fries, and milkshake, your triglycerides may increase by 15 percent to 20 percent. In other words, the triglyceride level may rise to 70 mg/dL, 80 mg/dL, or perhaps 90 mg/dL - but still will remain within the optimal range (below 100 mg/dL).

If your baseline triglyceride level is greater than 200 mg/dL, that high-fat junk "meal" could catapult your triglycerides to 300 mg/dL, 400 mg/dL, or even 500 mg/dL, and this elevation may be prolonged for several hours beyond the normal eight-hour clearance period.

Therefore, if you have not been fasting when the blood sample was drawn, your physicians may dismiss your elevated triglycerides reading as… insignificant.

    After a weekend of beer and pizza, Monday morning bloodwork readings tend to be higher than on the other days; therefore, take your weekend activities into account when having your test for blood triglycerides done.

For 12 to 14 hours before the test, only water (no coffee!) is permitted. In other words, NOTHING except water is allowed from bedtime until you get your bloodwork done next morning when a lab opens. In addition, alcohol should not be consumed for the 24 hours just before the test.

In addition, you are not supposed to take any vitamin supplements 24 hours prior to your fasting blood work. If you are currently on antihistamines, antibiotics or cortisone treatment only, you need to call the lab or your doctor for more information on how to proceed.

Anything taken in, other than water, during that time can elevate the triglycerides as they change dramatically in response to meals, increasing as much as 5 to 10 times higher than fasting levels just a few hours after eating.

However, even fasting levels may vary considerably day to day. Therefore modest changes in fasting triglycerides measured on different days are not considered to be abnormal.

Variability in Triglyceride Measurements

Due to a lack of standardized measurement, however, variability in triglyceride measurements may occur.

Daily concentrations of blood triglycerides vary more than the concentrations of most other metabolites and can be affected especially by:

  • previous alcohol (ethanol) consumption
  • dehydration, and
  • other factors, such as some drugs and ascorbic acid/vitamin C (they can decrease triglyceride measurements).

Another factor that affects triglyceride measurement is postural change; the level can vary by as much as 15 percent, depending on whether your were standing or supine when the blood was drawn, because of associated shifts in plasma volume.

Yet another factor is laboratory variability, which can range between 5 percent and 10 percent on a daily basis.

Finally, intraindividual variability can be another 5 percent to 10 percent.

Those variations, however, will not matter as much in those who have an optimal baseline triglyceride value as they will in people who have an elevated value, in whom the variability will tend to be much more dramatic.

It should also be noted that test for blood (serum) triglycerides should not be performed on specimens collected between 24 hours and 8 weeks after myocardial infarction (heart attack), as levels will be lower than usual.

As a rule, variability in triglycerides measurement can be decreased if you are instructed to

  • fast overnight for at least twelve (12) hours
  • abstain from alcohol for two (2) days, and
  • consume two cups (473 mL) of water one (1) hour before the collection of blood.

In particular, the importance of the two-day abstinence from alcohol is based on significant alterations in the plasma fatty acid pattern that persist twenty-four (24) hours after the consumption of alcohol and elevations in triaglycerides observed as late as nine (9) hours after the consumption of alcohol with dinner. (J Chromatogr 1992;579:13–24; Alcohol 1998;33:403–10).

What you should do then?

First, before having blood drawn for a triglyceride check, fast - preferably overnight - several hours. Fasting is essential for triglycerides (it is not necessary to measure cholesterol though).

Second, have the blood test repeated to be sure your measurement is accurate.

Third, tell your physician to also measure LDL and HDL cholesterol. A triglyceride measurement should be accompanied by a complete lipoprotein cholesterol determination.

Fasting Levels of Blood Triglycerides: Lab Values

The NCEP advises that adults have their blood lipids checked at least once every five years, starting at age 20. However, if you are over 40 you should get your triglycerides tested at least once a year. Diabetics must have their triglycerides measured every three (3) months.
Where our triglycerides should be is sort of the million dollar question. It's actually being debated. There is still conflicting opinion among medical experts regarding when a triglyceride level is too high.

Triglycerides test results are reported as numerical values rather than as "high" or "low", or "normal". Therefore, it is necessary to know the reference range for the test which may vary by person's age, sex, etc.

What does the fasting triglyceride test result mean? How high is high?

As triglyceride levels in the blood vary a great deal, right now, the general figure ("normal" or "healthy" range) is based on a fasting level of under 150 mg/dL.

In May, 2001, the U.S. National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP), a division of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), released recommendations on who should be treated for elevated triglyceride levels.

The NCEP recommendations ("consensus statements") are the products of independent, non-Federal panels of experts and are based on the panels' assessments of medical knowledge available at the time the statements were made.

Therefore, they provide "snapshots in time" of the state of knowledge of the topics (new knowledge, however, is inevitably accumulating through medical research).

It should be noted, however, that the usually quoted "normal" blood lipid levels do change as they depend upon the levels found in the majority of the population as well as upon what... health officials decide is normal.

Therefore, the declared "normal" triglyceride levels -- that your doctor will use to tell you whether your various serum/blood levels are "normal" -- do NOT necessarily mean "healthy" levels; rather these will include both healthy and many very unhealthy patients.

Here is the American Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel’s current policy on fasting blood triglyceride levels in adults:

less than 150 mg/dL (<1.7 mmol/L) Normal
150 - 199 mg/dL (1.7–2.3 mmol/L) Borderline-high
200 - 499 mg/dL (2.3–5.64 mmol/L) High
higher than 500 mg/dL (>5.64 mmol/L) Very high

Here are the Canadian guidelines on fasting blood triglyceride levels in adults:

less than 2.0 mmol/L (<177.2 mg/dL) Optimal
2.0 - 2.5 mmol/L (177.2 - 221.5 mg/dL) Acceptable
higher than 2.5 mmol/L (>221.5 mg/dL) Compromised

According to some European guidelines, blood triglyceride levels in adults should be categorized as follows:

less than 1.7 mmol/L (<150.1 mg/dL) No risk
between 1.7 - 2.3 mmol/L (150.1 - 203.1 mg/dL) Suspect
fasting 1.7 - 2.3 mmol/L (151.1 - 203.1 mg/dL) Requiring attention and intervention
2.3 - 4.6 mmol/L (203.1 - 407.1 mg/dL)
with high LDL cholesterol (greater than 4.1 mmol/L, or 160 mg/dL)
Requiring aggressive treatment

The following "normal" blood triglyceride reference ranges are based on someone's age:

   Age      "Normal" Triglyceride Range
   10 - 29 years      53 - 104 mg/dL, or 0.6 - 1.2 mmol/L
   30 - 39 years      55 - 115 mg/dL, or 0.6 - 1.3 mmol/L
   40 - 49 years    66 - 139 mg/dL, or 0.7 mmol/L - 1.6 mmol/L
   50 - 59    75 - 163 mg/dL, or 0.8 - 1.8 mmol/L
   60 - 69    78 - 158 mg/dL, or 0.9 - 1.8 mmol/L
   >  70 years      83 - 141 mg/dL, or 0.94 - 1.6 mmol/L

Here's another example of the "normal range" of blood triglycerides based on gender and age. Many health professionals find it quite accurate:

Adult Males Upper level: 130 mg/dL + age; Maximum: 200 mg/dL, or 2.3 mmol/L
Adult Females Lower level: 80 mg/dL + age; Maximum: 165 mg/dL, or 1.9 mmol/L
Adult Males and Females Lower level: Your age
Adult Males and Females Below 100 mg/dL, or 1.1 mmol/L: Ideal level

Keep in mind, these are only guidelines. The ranges were developed based on the entire population and may not apply to individuals.

PLEASE NOTE: Fasting values should be based on two serial measurements of serum (blood) triglycerides. Serial measurements are important because of intraindividual triglyceride variability which is 5 times that of cholesterol.

NCEP Expert Panel's Ties to Statin Drugmakers

Not surprisingly, the 2001 expert panel's guidelines may ultimately increase the number of patients on statin drugs to as many as 50 million users. (Cholesterol Guidelines A Gift For Merck, Pfizer. 07.12.04, 4:30 PM ET Forbes Magazine).

However, in an embarrassing oversight, the same government panel drafting the guidelines failed to mention that several of the panelists are linked to some of the pharmaceutical companies that manufacture statin drugs.

In fact, six of the nine panelists had either received grants or were paid consulting or speakers' fees by the companies that produce some of the most popular statin medications on the market (Panel's ties to drugmakers not cited in new cholesterol guidelines., including:

  • Pfizer's Lipitor;
  • Bristol-Myers Squibb's Pravachol;
  • Merck's Lovastatin; and
  • AstraZeneca's Crestor.

Extremely Low Triglycerides Levels

There are several known causes of low triglycerides (<50 mg/dL) However, many causes have yet to be discovered.

Extremely low triglycerides levels (less than 10 mg/dL) can indicate the following conditions:

  • abetalipoproteinemia - a disorder of lipid metabolism characterized by fat malabsorption, acanthocytosis, retinopathy, and progressive neurologic disease
  • hypobetalipoproteinemia - an inherited condition in which blood lipids are present at less than the expected levels regardless of how much fat is eaten; subjects may develop fatty liver
  • abetalipoproteinemia - a disorder of lipid metabolism characterized by fat malabsorption, acanthocytosis, retinopathy, and progressive neurologic disease
  • chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) - emphysema or chronic bronchitis
  • malabsorption syndrome (inadequate absorption of nutrients in the intestinal tract) leading to malnutrition
  • malnutrition (inadequate intake or inadequate digestion of nutrients)
  • hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) - a condition caused by the effects of too much thyroid hormone in tissues of the body, or
  • diet too low in fat,

Unfavourably low blood triglyceride levels may also be caused by:

  • too alkaline pH of glycerol (due to lack of infusion of chloride via phosphorylation in stomach; when the cellular tissue are too alkaline, the fatty acids tend to disintegrate and give off glycerol) and
  • fatty acid congestion in the liver.

In this case, a full-spectrum nutritional supplementation providing adequte amounts of the B vitamins, lipotropic factors, hydrochloric acid (HCL) and digestive enzymes can be of great help here.

Anyway, your health care provider should always check for these if too high or too low triglycerides are discovered.

Currently, as a rule of thumb, fasting blood triglyceride readings should be as follows:

  • greater than 55 mg/dL, or 0.62 mmol/L in women and
  • greater than 45 mg/dL, or 0.5 mmol/L in men.

Measurement Units

American blood laboratories use a different version of the metric system than does most of the rest of the world, which uses the Systeme Internationale (SI).

In some cases translation between the two systems is easy, but the difference between the two is most pronounced in the measurement of chemical concentration.

The American system generally uses mass per unit volume milligrams per deciliter of blood (mg/dL), while SI (Systeme International) - in Canada and Europe - uses moles per unit volume - millimoles per liter of blood (mmol/L).

Since mass per mole varies with the molecular weight of the substance being analyzed, conversion between American and SI units requires many different conversion factors.

A deciliter (dL) is 1/10 of a liter or about 1/4 of a pint. A mole is an amount of a substance (in this case, triglyceride) that contains a certain number of molecules or atoms. A millimole (mmol) is 1/1,000 of a mole.

To convert triglycerides from mg/dL to mmol/L,

  • multiply by 0.01129. To convert from mmol/L to mg/dL, multiply by 88.6.

To convert cholesterol from mg/dL to mmol/L,

  • multiply by 0.02586. To convert cholesterol from mmol/L to mg/dL, multiply by 38.7.

Blood Fat Levels in Terms of Milk Products

The blood fat level can be better described in terms of milk products:

Blood Triglycerides Level: Fat in Blood is Equal to
1000 mg/dL 1% milk
2000 mg/dL 2% milk
4000 mg/dL whole milk
12,000 mg/dL half & half

Triglyceride Fasting Levels: Interpretation of the Results

If you have a coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus (type 2, or non-insulin-dependent diabetes), or multiple risk factors, your triglycerides goal should be less than 100 mg/dL, or 1.3 mmol/L -- but NOT lower than 70 mg/dL, or 0.8 mmol/L.
High triglycerides are usually accompanied by high total cholesterol. Although risk of heart disease is based on cholesterol levels, the type of drug treatment used to lower cholesterol may differ, depending on whether triglycerides are "high" or "normal".

When triglycerides are "very high" (greater than 500 mg/dL, or 5.6 mmol/L), there is a risk of developing pancreatitis (inflammation of pancreas). Treatment to lower triglycerides should be started as soon as possible.

Fasting triglycerides, as a marker for triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, provide valuable information about the atherogenic potential of the lipoprotein profile, particularly when considered in context of HDL-"good" cholesterol levels.

It has been shown that "atherogenic hyperlipidemia" starts at the triglyceride level 150 mg/dL, or 1.7 mmol/L initiating degenerative changes in the cardiovascular system, and the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) can be significantly reduced by more aggressively treating elevated blood triglyceride levels.

However, there is still no consensus regarding the value necessitating initiation of triglyceride treatment. According to many physicians the need for implementation of proper dietary habits begins at the triglyceride level over 200 mg/dL, or 2.3 mmol/L and pharmacological (drug) treatment should be started at the triglyceride level over 300 mg/dL, or 3.4 mmol/L.

The Triglycerides/HDL Ratio: Heart Disease Predictor

Generally speaking, the higher the triglyceride/HDL ratio, the the higher your risk of a heart attack.
Association between triglycerides and HDL-"good" cholesterol is the most difficult to sort out. It turns out that whenever triglycerides are increased, HDL cholesterol decreases.

So is the increased risk seen with high triglycerides due to the triglycerides themselves, or to the associated reduction in HDL and increase in LDL-“bad” cholesterol. So far, nobody can say for sure.

However, it is believed that the triglycerides/HDL ratio is one of the most potent predictors of heart disease as HDL is closely related to triglycerides. A Harvard-lead study author reported:

    "High triglycerides alone increased the risk of heart attack nearly three-fold. And people with the highest ratio of triglycerides to HDL -- the "good" cholesterol -- had 16 times the risk of heart attack as those with the lowest ratio of triglycerides to HDL in the study of 340 heart attack patients and 340 of their healthy, same age counterparts.

    The ratio of triglycerides to HDL was the strongest predictor of a heart attack, even more accurate than the LDL/HDL ratio (Circulation 1997;96:2520-2525)."

It appears common for people with high triglycerides to have low HDL’s, and these same people also tend to have high levels of clotting factors in their bloodstream, which is unhealthy in protecting against heart disease.

In adults, the triglyceride/HDL ratio should be below 2 (just divide your triglycerides level by your HDL level). Or more precisely, the triglyceride/HDL ratio:

  • 2 or less is considered IDEAL
  • 4 - high
  • 6 - much too high.

And, since HDL (high density lipoprotein) is protective against heart disease, the lower the ratio, the better which means the lower your risk of a heart attack. In other words, the lower your triglycerides, or the higher your HDL-“good” cholesterol, the smaller this ratio becomes.

Health Risks Marked by Elevated Blood Triglycerides

Increased Risk of Heart Attack Increased Risk of Heart Attack
Increased Risk of Ischemic Stroke Increased Risk of Ischemic Stroke
Increased Risk of Fatty Liver and Pancreatitis Increased Risk of Fatty Liver and Pancreatitis

High Triglycerides: Weight Gain

Researchers from Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Missouri have found that high triglycerides block leptin - a hormone secreted by our fat cells - from getting into the brain by impairing its transportation system (Diabetes, 2004: May).

As a result, leptin cannot do its work in turning off feeding and burning calories.

In other words, high triglycerides make the brain "think" the body is starving so we keep eating and... gaining weight. This is probably one of the reasons why so many people are becoming obese.

By lowering triglycerides then, we could help the body's own leptin to work better so we could get skinnier avoiding heart problems, cancer and diabetes - common chronic diseases linked to obesity.

High Triglycerides: Medical Treatments

Roughly half of people with hyperlipidemia -- 42 million -- is affected by hypertriglyceridemia - increased triglyceride levels.
Medical experts disagree about the significance of high triglycerides - whether high triglycerides in the absence of high LDL and low HDL is a problem. However, studies have shown that elevated triglyceride levels do contribute significantly to the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD).

As a result of that disagreement, triglycerides don’t get as much attention from the medical community as cholesterol, but they are certainly important to overall health.

Even if cholesterol levels are... normal, triglycerides can contribute to the clogging of the arteries in the heart.

In the United States, there are about 85 million office visits a year by people with elevated levels of cholesterol and/or triglycerides – a condition called hyperlipidemia.

Standard Medical Treatments for High Triglycerides Continue reading this article...

High Triglycerides: The Nutritional Control

Elevated plasma triglycerides are in your control and can be brought down naturally.
As high blood triglycerides are a common lipid disorder in North America, we all know someone with this problem or we have it ourselves. If you are interested in avoiding or ending personal experience with this disorder, we have good news for you.

The main and foremost goal of the nutritional approach to elevated blood triglycerides is to improve and/or restore the body's metabolism of

  • lipids (fats) and
  • carbohydrates, especially refined sugar, processed grains and starches.

The body chemistry can be boosted only by optimum nutrition, that is by helping the cells to

  • receive more vital nutrients - nourishment needed for their optimal function (and survival)
  • stablize the body's insulin levels - the blood sugar-regulating hormone, according to many studies, directly associated with low HDL-"good" cholesterol and high triglyceride levels, and
  • undergo the ongoing process of detoxification - an essential factor in preventing and fighting all health problems.

Without improving the lipid and sugar metabolism, prescription drugs for high triglycerides are... a futile exercise (although they can be life saving at times). This is especially important for those, who have a family history of diabetes, heart disease or stroke due to atherosclerosis.

Fortunately, there are people, including a growing number of doctors, who admit that there are successful methods to reduce elevated levels of blood lipids (fats), other than temporary medical intervention.

There are also people - with or without high triglycerides - who are willing to trade their lifestyle habits for healthy arteries and a healthy old age; people who are making serious efforts to give their heart and cardiovascular system a longer, healthier life through optimum nutrition.

TGs Formula: All-Natural Blood Lipid Modulator

There have been medical studies on the beneficial effect of nutritional supplementation on triglyceride levels; it appears people with high triglycerides do benefit from dietary supplements.
The cornerstone of our triglyceride control method is Triglyceride Reduction Formula™. It is a comprehensive multiple vitamin and mineral supplement that provides optimal levels of nutrients to support people with high blood triglycerides.

Nutritional factors - naturally occurring substances, not drugs whose substances are foreign to the body - are able to boost the body chemistry by

  • correcting possible deficiencies and/or imbalances
  • improving metabolism of lipids (fats) and carbohydrates (sugars, starches, processed grains), and
  • providing optimum conditions for the proper functioning of the body's own intrinsic ability to heal itself.

As far as the cardiovascular system is concerned, according to orthomolecular nutrition, if the right building blocks (nutrients) are present in the body - in the right amounts and at the right time - the body will do the rest.

In other words, if you want to lower your triglyceride levels you need to get to the root of the problem. By just pulling a dandelion out by its leaves, you are not going to get very far.

If you choose to take a drug to 'solve' the underlying reason as to why your body is making too much triglycerides, than well over 95 percent of the time you will be will be promoting disease rather than health.
In our clinical experience, Triglyceride Reduction TGs Formula helps to:
  • stabilize the body's insulin levels
  • supply the body with adequate antioxidant levels (to improve their ratio to free radicals)
  • correct and optimize the natural processes (biochemical and enzymatic) of fat metabolism
  • stimulate plasma lipoprotein lipase (involved in the catabolism of triglycerides)
  • protect the liver against increases in fatty acids, thus preventing the fatty liver
  • improve the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids in the blood
  • prevent weight gain by improving transportation of the body's leptin into the brain (this hormone, secreted by fat cells, is reponsible for regulating appetite and energy expenditure, and for controlling weight).

The Natural Triglycerides Lowering Program shared with the public on the Internet around the world. So far, we have introduced our Triglyceride Reduction TGs Formula to our clients and customers in 42 countries: the United States (including Virgin Islands, Hawaii, and Guam), Malaysia, Australia, the United Kingdom, South Africa, Thailand, New Zealand, Germany, Belgium, Trinidad, Mexico, Italy, Spain, Pakistan, Singapore, Mauritius, Suriname (South America), France (including Martinique), Bolivia, Russia, Croatia, Poland, Portugal, Denmark, United Arab Emirates, Brunei Darussalam, Hong Kong, Macau, St. Lucia (West Indies), Norway, Saudi Arabia, Philippines, Brasil, Yemen, Kingdom of Bahrain, Turkey, China, Guatemala, Kuwait, Japan, Taiwan, and Jordan.

We hope you will join them. Sooner, rather than later...

Lowering High Triglycerides Naturally: TGs Formula Continue reading this article ...

TGs Formula: The Key Nutrients for Lipid Health

Triglyceride Reduction TGs Formula does not "destroy" triglycerides! It helps the body to eliminate the cause, namely, to correct the possible metabolic imbalances that are known to contribute to high blood triglycerides.
Our Triglyceride Reduction TGs Formula is a complete "multi" supporting healthy blood lipid levels.

It has been designed to provide optimal concentrations of vitamins, anti-oxidants, lipotropic factors, chelated minerals, trace minerals, and digestive enzymes as they are all necessary to bring the triglycerides down to normal.

This approach is based on the well-known fact that elevated blood triglycerides are usually caused by:

  • too acid pH of glycerol (due to diet and lack of potassium via phosphorylation in the stomach) and
  • improperly oxidized (metabolized) fatty acids in the gut by pancreatic enzymes.

Therefore, only a multi-based, full-spectrum nutritional supplement can help - in most cases - solve the problem.

Complete nutritional supplementation is also effective when blood triglyceride levels are too low; this condition is often caused by:

  • too alkaline pH of glycerol (due to lack of infusion of chloride via phosphorylation in stomach; when the cellular tissue are too alkaline, the fatty acids tend to disintegrate and give off glycerol) and
  • fatty acid congestion in the liver.

Again, a full-spectrum nutritional supplement providing B vitamins, lipotropic factors, hydrochloric acid (HCL) and digestive enzymes can help - in most cases - solve the problem.

As a complete food supplement, our proprietary Triglyceride Reduction TGs Formula consists of:

  • nutrients involved in fat metabolism (assisting in burning hepatic and intestinal triglycerides), such as inositol, choline and dl-Methionine
  • nutrients directly involved in lowering triglycerides levels, such as niacin (vitamin B3), chromium, calcium and vitamin E (Diabetes Care 1994;17:1449–52. Postgrad Med 1995;98:183–93 [review]. Lipids 1972;7:202–6. J Nutr 1991;121:165–9)
  • methyl donors, such as folic acid, vitamins B6 and B12
  • all essential vitamins and minerals, such as vitamin C, E, niacin, magnesium, zinc, chromium, selenium
  • glandular concentrates, such as adrenal, liver, pancreas, and
  • nutrients supporting bile flow and the healthy liver function, such as L-Cysteine.

TGs Reduction Formula
Advanced Blood Lipid Support
Dietary Supplement
120 Tablets

73 Phytonutrients and Nutrients
SUPPLEMENT FACTS: Amount Per Serving (1 Tablet) Triglyceride Reduction TGs Formula by Full of Health Inc.
120 Tablets
1. Vitamin A (All Trans Retinyl Palmitate) 1,000 IU
2. Beta Carotene (Natural) 500 IU
3. Vitamin C (as Ascorbic Acid and Ascorbyl Palmitate) 250 mg
4. Vitamin D-3 (Cholecalciferol) 400 IU
5. Vitamin E (as D-Alpha Tocopheryl Succinate and Mixed Tocopherols, Alpha, Beta, and Gamma) 87.5 IU
6. Vitamin B1 (Thiamine Hydrochloride) 15 mg
7. Vitamin B2 (as Riboflavin and Riboflavin-5-Phosphate) 7.5 mg
8. Niacin (Vitamin B3) 15 mg
9. Niacinamide 2.5 mg
10. Vitamin B6 (as Pyridoxine HCl and Pyridoxal-5-Phosphate) 10 mg
11. Folic Acid 800 mcg
12. Vitamin B12 (Methylcobalamin) 250 mcg
13. Biotin 1,500 mcg
14. Pantothenic Acid (Calcium Pantothenate) 50 mg
15. Calcium (as Asparatate, Phosphate and Calcium Pantothenate) 25 mg
16. Iodine (Potassium Iodide) 62.5 mcg
17. Magnesium (Citrate) 15 mg
18. Zinc (Monomethionine) 5 mg
19. Selenium (Methylselenocysteine) 25 mcg
20. Manganese (Gluconate) 2.5 mg
21. Chromium (Chromium Polynicotinate) 375 mcg
22. Potassium (Phosphate) 15 mg
23. L-Cysteine Hydrochloride 55 mg
24. DL-Methionine 37.5 mg
25. Choline 32.5 mg
26. Lemon Bioflavonoids 25 mg
27. N-Acetyl-Cysteine 25 mg
28. Inositol 20 mg
39. L-Glutamic Acid HCl 5 mg
30. RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) 5 mg
32. Boron (Citrate) 250 mcg
33-73. PROPRIETARY BLEND : 263.5 mg
Glandular Substances (Adrenal, Pancreas, Hypothalamus, Liver, Pituitary/Anterior), Garlic Extract (Allium sativum) (Bulb), Guggulipid Extract (Commiphora mukul) (Std. to 2.5% Guggulsterones), Betaine (Trimethylglycine), Arjuna (Terminalia arjuna) (Std. to 0.5% Arjunolic Acid) (Bark), Pantethine (as Coenzyme A precursor), Sytrinol® ** (Nobiletin and Tangeritin Compound), Quercetin, Bitter Melon Leaf Extract (Momordica charantia) (Std. to 0.5% Charantin), Pancreatin 8x, Propolis (2:1), Golden Root Powder (Rhodiola Rosea) (Std. to 3% Rosarin), Maca Extract Lepidium peruvianum Chacon) (Std. 4:1) (Root), Ox Bile, Cayenne (Capsicum annum) (Std. to 0.3% Capsaicin) (Fruit), Cinnulin PF® ***Cinnamon Extract (Cortex cinnamoni) (Bark), Gymnema Sylvestre (Std. to 25% Gymnemic Acids), L. Banaba Leaf Extract (Lagerstroemia speciosa) (Std. to 1.0% Corosolic Acid), Silymarin Extract Std. (from Milk Thistle) (Seed), Artichoke Leaf Extract (Cynara scolymus) (Std. to 5% Cynarin), Berberine (Barberry Root Extract 4:1) (Berberis aristata), Blueberry Leaf (Vaccinium angustifolium), Burdock Powder (Arctium lappa) (Root), Chlorophyll (as Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin), Curcumin Extract (Curcuma longa) (Root), Gentian Powder (Gentiana lutea) (Root), Grape Seed Extract (Vitis vinifera) (Std. to 95% Oligometric Proanthocyanidins), Rosemary Leaf Extract (Rosmarinus officinalis) (Std. to 6.0% Carnosic Acid), Shilajit (Himalayan mineral pitch), Triphala Extract (Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, Emblica officinalis) (Fruit), Bromelain, Papain, Alpha Lipoic Acid, BioPerine® **** Black Pepper Extract (Piper nigrum) (Fruit), Trans-Resveratrol (from Japanese Giant Knotweed Root), Vanadium (Vanadyl Sulfate). * Daily Value not established.
Our Mission: To Contribute to the Optimal Health of Others™ One of the best dietary supplements in the world™
This product is manufactured in a NSF GMP registered facility in accordance with cGMPs for Nutritional Supplements in accordance with USP 31. The laboratories are ISO 9001:1994 certified and ISO 17025:2005 accredited. Raw materials used in the manufacturing of this product are in full compliance with the Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002. Raw material safety and quality is ensured by the manufacturer's Supplier Qualification Program.
DIRECTIONS: Take 2 tablets 2 times daily with substantial meals, or as recommended by a qualified healthcare professional.

Refrigerate the jar after opening.
If you are under a physician’s care or taking medication, or if you are pregnant or nursing, consult your healthcare practitioner before using this product. CAUTION
Quality and purity guaranteed. This product does not contain MSG, wheat, gluten, soy protein, fish, shellfish, milk/dairy, corn, egg, nuts, sugar, salt, starch, artificial coloring, preservatives, or flavoring. PREMIUM PURITY
TGs Reduction Formula® : Advanced Blood Lipid Support

This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.
Other ingredients: Microcrystalline cellulose, vegetable stearate and silica.

Full of Health and TGs Formula are registered trademarks of Full of Health, Inc.
* Daily Value not established.
** Sytrinol® is a proprietary extract of Plymethoxylated flavones and tocotrienols from citrus and palm fruits.
*** Cinnulin PF® is a registered trademark of Integrity Nutraceuticals International.
**** BioPerine® is a registered trademark of Sabinsa Corporation.
Triglyceride Reduction TGs Formula Label TGs Formula Label
(in PDF)


As you can see, there is no one "miracle" ingredient in the Triglyceride Reduction TGs Formula. It is a specialty complex orthomolecular formulation with strong lipid-lowering properties providing a comprehensive support for the entire circulatory system.

All nutrients are present in specific ratios and amounts in order to correct longer standing deficiencies and imbalances that are known to contribute to elevated blood fat levels.

Thousands of people have proven the efficacy of this approach. There has not been a single reported harm done by taking our Triglyceride Reduction TGs Formula.

Triglyceride Reduction Formula: Natural Ingredients Continue reading this article...

Diet Plan for High Triglycerides

As blood fats (triglycerides, cholesterol, etc.), to a great extent, are intimately related to what you eat, your diet has a strong impact on the levels of triglycerides in the blood. Therefore, your food choices should be given serious consideration.

Eating Plan For High Triglycerides Continue reading this article...

"The Low-Grain, Low-Sugar Delight" Cookbook

This superb cookbook will help you get started on your journey to improved health without having to choose between good health and great taste - in no time!

Nutritional Triglycerides Reduction: Low Grain, No Sugar Cookbook for High Triglycerides Continue reading this article...

Gentle Exercise for High Triglycerides

There is strong evidence that exercise and stress reduction - if done regularly - are both protective of the cardiovascular system and supportive of the immune processes. For adults, increased levels of triglycerides are almost always a sign of not enough exercise.

Gentle Exercise For High Triglycerides Continue reading this article...

High Triglycerides: The Stress Link

Prolonged stress is one of the main causes of elevated blood triglycerides.

A new study has found the evidence that psychological, mental stress causes triglycerides to stay in the bloodstream longer contributing to cardiovascular health problems (Psychophysiology, 2002: 39; 80-85).

The stress factor, however, has been repeatedly underestimated with regards to elevated blood lipids (fats).

Lowering High Triglycerides: Relaxation and Stress Relief Audio Program Continue reading this article...

Testimonial: "This is Truly Amazing!"

    Tuesday, September 17, 2002

    This is to let you know what has happened in my husband's health since we came across your website and ordered the Formula in August.

    Last April, he had a blood workup and the results were: cholesterol - 193, triglyceride - 611, HDL - 31, LDL - 171. Then, on August 24, he had another test results: cholesterol - 194, triglycerides - 720, HDL - 27, LDL 181.

    We searched the web for a high triglyceride diet and came across your website, and decided to try it. Ordered the Formula immediately.

    Before he was on a diet for cholesterol taking a one-a-day vitamin, extra Vit E 1000 IU's, also a B complex, Guggulipid 2 a day, golden flax seed. When we received your Formula, he stopped everything except the guggulipid.

    Yesterday, September 16, after one month on TGs Reduction Formula, the results were: cholesterol - 192, triglyceride - 211, HDL - 32, and LDL - 118.

    This is truly amazing. We will definitely stay with your diet and the Formula.

      ~ Helen G.,
      Anita, Iowa, United States

    * The testimonial above has been presented as a true story. However, it has not been reviewed by Full of Health and is the opinion of the listed individual.

Nutritional Triglyceride Reduction: An Opportunity

The nutritional approach is for you - if

  • you are tempted to take prescription drugs (statins, etc.) to reduce your high triglycerides (and/or cholesterol), but worried about the side effects;
  • you have been taking prescription medication/s with little or no success;
  • you have tried to lower your triglycerides through the diet with disappointing results.

At Full of Health, Inc., we are sure that this simple method - so simple that, at first, its simplicity makes you difficult to believe - will do as much for you as it has done for our clients and customers.

If other people have benefited from the nutritional method to lower triglycerides, you, or someone you know or hold dear, can benefit as well.

Nutritional Triglyceride Reduction: Thank-You Notes

Our visitors write to us:

    "Wednesday, February 5, 2003

    I just sat down to refresh my memory a little on triglycerides and up came your page.

    I am an RN and I find myself very impressed with your exceptional ability of explaining a difficult topic in a manner that could be understood by anyone.

    A great health teaching tool, you are too be congratulated.


      Jim A., Midland, Ontario"

    "Wednesday, November 24, 2004

    I found your site to be very informative, thank you for that.

    I'm only 19 years old and a doctor told me that I had high triglycerides. I had no idea what it was, so thank you for the information!

      Noemy C."

    "Saturday, November 27, 2004

    Dear Full of Health,
    I am forwarding this excellent information on triglycerides and your [Triglyceride Reduction] formula to my brother who was tested recently with a very high number Tri [glycerides] - of 850.

    I'm a diabetic and he is my oldest brother, so my doctors have told me to tell my siblings to watch out for diabetes. This year his test numbers went way up and he has questions about it.

    Thanks for helping me to help him.

    Best Regards,

      Eddy B., Dallas, TX

    Note: You are permitted to use my comments and first name. Thanks!


TGs Formula: Quality and Purity Assurance

Reduce Triglyceride Reduction TGs Formula

Triglyceride Reduction Formula.
Adanced Blood Lipid Support
Quality Ingredients, Proper Dosages,
No Cost-Cutting Shortcuts

It is impossible to judge the true quality of a product – especially a natural product – simply by reading a list of ingredients.

Factors such as freshness and freedom of contamination of the raw materials, just to name a few, are critical variables as well.

Even experts experienced in nutritional technology cannot assess the value and quality of a product by merely reading a label.

To ensure that our consumers receive the highest quality, contaminant-free products, all our supplements must pass as many as 37 individual laboratory tests, consisting of:

  • 27 assays to ensure each ingredient is present in the amount stated on the label
  • 3 separate analyses to confirm the tablets are free from harmful elements, including: arsenic, lead and other heavy metals
  • 4 individual examinations to confirm the absence of harmful bacteria, including E.coli, salmonella, staphylococcus and other bacteria
  • 2 tests to confirm the tablets are free from yeasts or molds
  • 1 assessment to confirm that the tablets dissolve rapidly in gastric fluid.

Triglyceride Reduction TGs Formula is certified by an independent laboratory to meet the stringent testing outlined. This ensures that our clients and customers receive the highest quality, contaminant-free product.

A How-To Guide to High Triglycerides

Andrew Mierzejewski, MA, RHN: Bring Your Triglycerides Down Naturally: Expanded Second Edition (2006, 182 pp.); ISBN 0-9736799-1-3
Lowering High Triglycerides Naturally Audio Excerpt
Narrated by Rory O'Shea
Due to popular demand, our complete, clinically proven triglyceride-reduction program is now available in a book authored by Andrew Mierzejewski, RHN, MA an accomplished registered holistic nutritionist and president of Full of Health

We are so proud to be offering an expanded second edition of this comprehensive source of practical information which answers all questions and concerns you might have about the role triglycerides play in our health and the natural means of controlling them.

Some of the important insights on lowering triglycerides you'll learn from this book include:

  • Health risks marked by high blood triglycerides

  • Right (and wrong) foods to fight and prevent elevated blood triglycerides

  • Effects of high carbohydrate diet on the triglycerides synthesis and metabolism

  • Standard medical treatments and prescription drugs for elevated blood triglycerides

  • Simple lifestyle changes you should make to optimize your blood lipid profile

  • The single most important supplement you can take that should be a regular part of your diet as it will greatly reduce your blood triglycerides

Bring Your Triglycerides Down Naturally: A Drug-Free Solution to High Blood Lipids (2004); ISBN 0973679905 Continue reading this article...

High Triglycerides | TGs Formula | For Advice or to Order, CALL: 1. 705. 876. 9223 (US/Can)

Monday - Friday: 10:00 am - 3:00 pm EST (Weekends & Holidays Excluded)

Nutritional Triglycerides Reduction
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© 2001-2013 Reduce High Lowering High Triglycerides Naturally. Triglyceride Reduction TGs Formula - A Drug-Free Approach to Elevated Blood Triglycerides. All rights reserved worldwide. This document may not be copied in part or full without express written permission from the publisher. The information on high triglycerides and nutrition provided herein is a general overview on this topic and may not apply to everyone, therefore, it should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. While reasonable effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information on reducing elevated triglycerides, Full of Health, Inc. assumes no responsibility for errors or omissions, or for damages resulting from use of the high triglyceride information herein. [website protection]